Cryptic diversity and gene flow among three African agricultural pests: Ceratitis rosa, C. fasciventris, C. anonae (Diptera, Tephritidae)
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The Ceratitis FAR complex is a species complex of African fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) including the major agricultural pest C. rosa and the morphologically similar C. fasciventris and C. anonae. In order to resolve their intra- and interspecific genetic relationships and to estimate gene flow within this complex, we surveyed allelic variation at 16 microsatellite loci in 27 African populations of the three morphospecies. Inter-population genetic distances and individual Bayesian assignments distinguished five genotypic clusters: two involving C. rosa (R1, R2; that may occur in sympatry), two involving C. fasciventris (F1, F2; with parapatric distributions), and one involving C. anonae (A). Intra- and interspecific patterns of genetic differentiation were not hierarchically structured and genetic differentiation between conspecific clusters (F1-F2 and R1-R2) was higher or comparable to differentiation between heterospecific clusters (e.g. F1-A or R2-A). In some cases, gene flow estimates among morphospecies or among heterospecific genotypic clusters were significantly different from zero, showing the lack of reproductive isolation. Genetic differentiation among genotypic clusters was partly supported by morphological differences observed a posteriori in male secondary sexual characters. These results suggest important revisions to current models of ecological niche requirements and invasion risk of the major agricultural pest C. rosa, and provide a basis for a taxonomic re-interpretation of the FAR complex.
CitationVirgilio, M.; Delatte, H.; Quilici, S.; Backeljau, T.; De Meyer, M. (2013). Cryptic diversity and gene flow among three African agricultural pests: Ceratitis rosa, C. fasciventris, C. anonae (Diptera, Tephritidae). , Molecular Ecology, Vol. 22, 2526-2539,