European floods during the winter 1783/1784: scenarios of an extreme event during the 'Little Ice Age'
Earth and related Environmental sciences
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The Lakagígar eruption in Iceland during 1783 was followed by the severe winter of 1783/1784, which was characterised by low temperatures, frozen soils, ice-bound watercourses and high rates of snow accumulation across much of Europe. Sudden warming coupled with rainfall led to rapid snowmelt, resulting in a series of flooding phases across much of Europe. The first phase of flooding occurred in late December 1783–early January 1784 in England, France, the Low Countries and historical Hungary. The second phase at the turn of February–March 1784 was of greater extent, generated by the melting of an unusually large accumulation of snow and river ice, affecting catchments across France and Central Europe (where it is still considered as one of the most disastrous known floods), throughout the Danube catchment and in southeast Central Europe. The third and final phase of flooding occurred mainldy in historical Hungary during late March and early April 1784. The different impacts and consequences of the above floods on both local and regional scales were reflected in the economic and societal responses, material damage and human losses. The winter of 1783/1784 can be considered as typical, if severe, for the Little Ice Age period across much of Europe.
CitationBrazdil, R.; Demarée, G.; Deutsch, M.; Garnier, E.; Kiss, A.; Luterbacher, J.; Macdonald, N.; Rohr, C.; Dobrovolny, P.; Kolar, P.; Chroma, K. (2010). European floods during the winter 1783/1784: scenarios of an extreme event during the 'Little Ice Age'. , Issue Theoretical & Applied Climatology, Volume 100, p. 163-189, IRM,