Solar UV Irradiance in a Changing Climate: Trends in Europe and the Significance of Spectral Monitoring in Italy
Bais, Alkiviadis F.
De Backer, Hugo
Webb, Ann, R.
De Bock, Veerle
Zerefos, Christos S.
Earth and related Environmental sciences
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Review of the existing bibliography shows that the direction and magnitude of the long-term trends of UV irradiance, and their main drivers, vary significantly throughout Europe. Analysis of total ozone and spectral UV data recorded at four European stations during 1996–2017 reveals that long-term changes in UV are mainly driven by changes in aerosols, cloudiness, and surface albedo, while changes in total ozone play a less significant role. The variability of UV irradiance is large throughout Italy due to the complex topography and large latitudinal extension of the country. Analysis of the spectral UV records of the urban site of Rome, and the alpine site of Aosta reveals that differences between the two sites follow the annual cycle of the differences in cloudiness and surface albedo. Comparisons between the noon UV index measured at the ground at the same stations and the corresponding estimates from the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) forecast model and the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI)/Aura observations reveal differences of up to 6 units between individual measurements, which are likely due to the different spatial resolution of the different datasets, and average differences of 0.5–1 unit, possibly related to the use of climatological surface albedo and aerosol optical properties in the retrieval algorithms.
Fountoulakis, I.; Diémoz, H.; Siani, A.-M.; Laschewski, G.; Filippa, G.; Arola, A.; Bais, A.F.; De Backer, H.; Lakkala, K.; Webb, A.R.; De Bock, V.; Karppinen, T.; Garane, K.; Kapsomenakis, J.; Koukouli, M.-E.; Zerefos, C.S. Solar UV Irradiance in a Changing Climate: Trends in Europe and the Significance of Spectral Monitoring in Italy. Environments 2020, 7, 1.